Alternative approaches see disinformation as a layered process in which meaning is being created by those who create, present, and disseminate information together with those who interpret this information and react to it. Within this approach, the following roles can be distinguished:
- Those who create, present, and disseminate misleading information;
- Those who react to the misleading information and, as a result of their reaction (violent, promoting social unrest, promoting social harm from a human rights point of view), turn it into disinformation.
These roles outline the direction of interventions needed to tackle disinformation:
- Interventions intervening in the reaction to misleading information.
The key to interventions tackling disinformation in this approach does not lie with the senders but with the active receivers. These receivers do not need to be educated. Rather, a dialogue with these receivers is needed on a peer-to-peer basis. Citizens who actively turn misleading information into misinformation are to be seen as partners in a difficult conversation.