According to sociologist Erving Goffman[i], everyone uses frames to understand situations. These frames are not just answers to the question: What is this about? They also come with roles that are relevant within that situation.

According to us, the frame of disinformation chosen together with its given roles, in turn, provide an outline for interventions to tackle disinformation.

Within the field of tackling disinformation, there seems to be a conceptual spectrum of frames requiring ‘top-down’ interventions on one end of the spectrum and frames requiring ‘peer-to-peer interventions’ on the other end of the spectrum. It seems that ‘Western’ approaches tend to take place near the ‘top-down’ end of the spectrum while ‘alternative’ approaches rather are located near the ‘peer-to-peer’ end of the spectrum.

[i] Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis. An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Harvard University Press.