Based on the generally accepted elements of disinformation, two types of interventions tackling disinformation can be distinguished:

  • Interventions limiting dissemination of misleading information:
    • Examples: cybersecurity; censorship; de-platforming; tweaking recommendation algorithms; discovery and labeling, discrediting, debunking; content moderation; demonetizing; sanctions; regulating very large platforms.
  • Interventions limiting harm caused by misleading information:
    • Examples: debunking; prebunking; collaborative journalism; stimulating media literacy; stimulating critical thinking; awareness campaigns.

These interventions are often supported by: research & intelligence; community engagement and mobilization; advocacy; and lobbying decisionmakers.